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spring Boot 2.x | 自定义异常 统一返回值 全局异常处理

陈明羽 2018-12-06

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本文讲解如何在springboot项目中使用自定义异常,统一返回,全局异常处理

新建一个springboot项目,引入web依赖,pom.xml完整依赖如下

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
        <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
        <version>1.16.22</version>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

自定义异常

在项目中有的地方,比如入参校验错误,安全校验失败等可能需要主动去抛异常,这时候就需要自己自定义一个异常。

/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/12/6 14:36
 * @description:
 */
@Data
public class MyException extends RuntimeException{

    private Integer code;

    private String msg;

    public MyException(Integer code, String msg) {
        this.code = code;
        this.msg = msg;
    }

    public MyException(String msg) {
        this.code = ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_ERROR.getCode();
        this.msg = msg;
    }

    public MyException(ResultTypeEnum resultEnum) {
        this.code = resultEnum.getCode();
        this.msg = resultEnum.getMessage();
    }
}

自定义异常只要新建一个类继承RuntimeException类

统一返回值

定义统一返回类:Result

Result 类构造函数私有化,使用Result 类提供的static方法构造Result 实例返回,再定义一个响应状态的枚举ResultTypeEnum,同一返回状态码等信息。

/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/10/31 16:47
 * @description:
 */
public class Result<T> implements Serializable {

  private Integer code;
  private String msg;
  private T data;

  private Result() {
  }

  public Result(ResultTypeEnum type) {
    this.code = type.getCode();
    this.msg = type.getMessage();
  }

  public Result(ResultTypeEnum type, T data) {
    this.code = type.getCode();
    this.msg = type.getMessage();
    this.data = data;
  }

  public Result(ResultTypeEnum type, String content, T data) {
    this.code = type.getCode();
    this.msg = content;
    this.data = data;
  }

  public static Result success() {
    return new Result(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_SUCCESS);
  }

  public static <T> Result<T> success(T data) {
    return new Result(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_SUCCESS, data);
  }

  public static <T> Result<T> error(T data) {
    return new Result(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_ERROR, data);
  }

  public static  <T> Result<T> success(String content, T data) {
    return new Result(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_SUCCESS, content, data);
  }

  public static Result error() {
    return new Result(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_ERROR);
  }

  public static Result error(ResultTypeEnum typeEnum) {
    return new Result(typeEnum);
  }

  public static Result error(ResultTypeEnum typeEnum,String msg) {
    return new Result(typeEnum,msg);
  }

  public String getMsg() {
    return msg;
  }

  public void setMsg(String msg) {
    this.msg = msg;
  }

  public Integer getCode() {
    return code;
  }

  public void setCode(Integer code) {
    this.code = code;
  }

  public T getData() {
    return data;
  }

  public void setData(T data) {
    this.data = data;
  }
}
响应状态枚举:ResultTypeEnum
/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/10/31 16:47
 * @description:
 */
public enum ResultTypeEnum {

    SERVICE_SUCCESS(200,"成功"),
    PARAM_ERROR(40001,"入参异常"),
    SERVICE_ERROR(500,"服务异常");

    private Integer code;
    private String message;

    public int getCode() {
        return code;
    }

    public void setCode(int code) {
        this.code = code;
    }

    public String getMessage() {
        return message;
    }

    public void setMessage(String message) {
        this.message = message;
    }

    ResultTypeEnum(int code, String message) {
        this.code = code;
        this.message = message;
    }
}
怎么使用
/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/12/6 14:20
 * @description:
 */
@RestController
public class ExceptionController {

    /**
     * 成功返回值
     */
    @RequestMapping("/querySuccess")
    public Result<String> querySuccess(){
        return Result.success("我是数据");
    }

    /**
     * 错误返回值
     */
    @RequestMapping("/queryError")
    public Result<String> queryError(){
        return Result.error(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_ERROR);
    }
}

调用 http://localhost:8080/querySuccess

调用 http://localhost:8080/queryError

全局异常处理

在spring的项目中使用@ControllerAdvice注解来处理controller层报出的异常信息

//ControllerAdvice 注解源码
@Target({ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Component
public @interface ControllerAdvice {
    @AliasFor("basePackages")
    String[] value() default {};

    @AliasFor("value")
    String[] basePackages() default {};

    Class<?>[] basePackageClasses() default {};

    Class<?>[] assignableTypes() default {};

    Class<? extends Annotation>[] annotations() default {};
}
全局异常处理类

@ExceptionHandler(value = Exception.class):处理Exception类型的异常

@ResponseStatus:响应的状态码

/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/12/6 10:57
 * @description:
 */
@ControllerAdvice
public class ExceptionHandle extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {

    /**
     * 只捕获 IllegalArgumentException 异常
     * @param request
     * @param e
     * @return
     */
    @ExceptionHandler(value = IllegalArgumentException.class)
    @ResponseBody
    @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
    private Result illegalArgumentExceptionHandler(HttpServletRequest request, Exception e) {
        System.out.println("IllegalArgumentException 异常: " + e.getClass().getName());
        return Result.error(ResultTypeEnum.PARAM_ERROR,"请求地址:"+request.getRequestURI());
    }

    /**
     * 只捕获 MyException 异常
     * @param request
     * @param e
     * @return
     */
    @ExceptionHandler(value = MyException.class)
    @ResponseBody
    @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
    private Result myExceptionHandler(HttpServletRequest request,MyException e) {
        System.out.println("自定义异常 :"+ e.getMsg());
        return  Result.error(e.getMsg()+"url:"+request.getRequestURI());
    }

    /**
     * 默认异常捕获,上面两个异常没走的话走我。
     * @param request
     * @param e
     * @return
     */
    @ExceptionHandler
    @ResponseBody
    @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
    private Result exceptionHandler(HttpServletRequest request,Exception e) {
        System.out.println("异常 :"+ e.getClass().getName());
        request.getMethod();
        return Result.error(ResultTypeEnum.SERVICE_ERROR,"不符合上述异常的默认走我这");
    }
}
处理异常测试
/**
 * @auther: chenmingyu
 * @date: 2018/12/6 14:20
 * @description:
 */
@RestController
public class ExceptionController {

    /**
     * 抛出运行时异常
     */
    @RequestMapping("/throwRuntimeException")
    public void throwRuntimeException(){
        throw new RuntimeException();
    }

    /**
     * 抛出运行时异常
     */
    @RequestMapping("/throwIllegalArgumentException")
    public void throwIllegalArgumentException(){
        throw new IllegalArgumentException();
    }

    /**
     * 抛出自定义异常
     */
    @RequestMapping("/throwMyException")
    public void throwMyException(){
        throw new MyException("我是主动抛出来的");
    }
}

调用http://localhost:8080/throwIllegalArgumentException

调用http://localhost:8080/throwMyException

调用http://localhost:8080/throwRuntimeException

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